The 4C’S

Understand better for diamond products. You need to know 4CS.


Understanding what colour means helps in choosing the right diamond. Interestingly, the diamond colour evaluation of most gem-quality diamonds is based on the absence of colour. A chemically pure and structurally perfect diamond has no hue, like a drop of water, and consequently, a higher value. GIA, IGI and EGL usually use D-To-Z diamonds colour-grading systems measures the degree of colourlessness by comparing a stone under controlled lighting and precise viewing conditions to master stones of established colour value. Many of these diamonds colour distinctions are so subtle that they are invisible to the untrained eye. However, these distinctions make a huge difference in diamond quality and price. The clarity  


The clarity of a diamond refers to the absence of inclusions and blemishes. When evaluating a diamond clarity, you are determining the number, size, relief, nature and position of these characteristics and how these affect the overall appearance of the stone. While no diamond is perfectly pure, the closer it comes, the higher its value diamond cut. The diamond clarity scale has Six categories, some of which are divided for 11 specific grades.  

  • Flawless (FL) 
  • No inclusions and no blemishes visible under 10x magnification 
  • Internally Flawless (IF) 
  • No inclusions visible under 10x magnification 
  • Very, Very Slightly Included (VVS1 and VVS2) 
  • Inclusions so slight they are difficult for a skilled grader to see under 10x magnification 
  • Very Slightly Included (VS1 and VS2) 
  • Inclusions are observed with effort under 10x magnification but can be characterized as minor 
  • Slightly Included (SI1 and SI2) 
  • Inclusions are noticeable under 10x magnification 
  • Included (I1, I2, and I3) 
  • Inclusions are noticeable under 10x magnification which may affect transparency and brilliance. 


Diamonds are renowned for their ability to transmit light and sparkle so intensely. We often think of a diamond’s cut as shape (round, emerald, pear), but a diamond’s cut grade is really about how well a diamond’s facets interact with light.  

To determine the cut grade of the standard round brilliant diamond – the shape that dominates the majority of diamond jewellery – we calculate the proportions of those facets that influence the diamond’s face-up appearance. These proportions indicate how successfully a diamond interacts with light to create desirable visual effects. 

The diamond cut grade also considers the design and craftsmanship of the diamond, including its weight relative to its diameter, its girdle thickness (which affects its durability), the symmetry of its facet arrangement, and the quality of polish on those facets. 

The Diamond Cut Scale for standard round brilliant diamonds in the D-to-Z diamond colour range contains five grades ranging from Excellent to Poor. 

Carat Weight  

Diamond carat weight is the measurement of how much a diamond weigh. A metric “carat” is defined as 200 milligrams. 

Each carat can be subdivided into 100 ‘points.’ This allows exact measurements to the hundredth decimal place. A jeweller may describe the weight of a diamond below one carat by its ‘points’ alone. For instance, the jeweller may refer to a diamond that weighs 0.25 carats as a ‘twenty-five pointer.’ Diamond weights greater than one carat are expressed in carats and decimals. A 1.08 carat stone would be described as ‘one point oh eight carats.’